E-mail address for correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Postal address: Martin Worthington, Division of Archaeology, Cambridge, CB2 3DZ, United Kingdom.
A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, edited by Jeremy Black, Andrew George, and Nicholas Postgate, with the assistance of Tina Breckwoldt, Graham Cunningham, Marie-Christine Ludwig, Clemens Reichel, Jonathan Blanchard Smith, Junko Taniguchi and Cornelia Wunsch, was published in Wiesbaden in 1999 by Harrassowitz Verlag, and reprinted the following year with minor corrections. This archive is intended to act as a supplement to the dictionary, fulfilling several functions as described below. It is up-dated periodically, about once a year. Proposals are welcomed for improvements and additional entries (address above). Where these are adopted, they will be appropriately attributed and dated.
In the preparation of the dictionary, the pressure of time made it impossible to take full account of all the material in the reviews of the two dictionaries and in the AfO listings, although a fair amount was incorporated from these sources. An attempt will be made here to remedy this, and also to revise any letters which have since appeared in CAD (from R onwards). Reviews of the CDA will also be taken into account. Eventually, the material on this website will hopefully feed into a second edition of the dictionary, so that the website functions as a rolling preview of the second edition.
This archive, originally hosted at http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/cda_archive/, was created by J. N. Postgate, with the editorial assistance of Dr Simon J. Sherwin and technical advice from Dr Guy Deutscher and Dr Eleanor Robson. Grateful thanks are due to all who gave advice. The archive is currently maintained by Martin Worthington.
The list of lemmata is largely retrospective, attempting to assist the users of the CDA by supplying chapter and verse for its divergences from, or additions to, the two main dictionaries of Akkadian. However, it is not comprehensive, as there inevitably remain many smaller and larger points of difference for which documentation has not been provided. Sometimes this may be because a difference did not seem sufficiently significant to merit mention, but in other cases it was simply submerged in the ongoing editorial process. It will be possible to make further retrospective entries if they seem called for.
It is important to emphasise that this archive is specifically compiled for the purposes of A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. It does not therefore seek to supply comprehensive references to new attestations of words or periods already recognized by the dictionary, nor to discussions of words or lexical points which (as is believed) have not led to a clear result suitable for incorporation in the next edition. As in the dictionary itself, words which are only known from unpublished texts, or single attestations (hapax legomena) on which there is an element of uncertainty, are not normally taken up.
Explanation of colours used in the list of lemmata
Pink = New
When an alteration is made to the list of lemmata, this is initially pink. Hence pink indicates that the relevant annotation is (relatively) recent, dating to some point in (roughly) the last twelve months (at present this means since September 2007). About once every twelve months, all pink annotations are given a different colour (red, green, or black), depending on their nature (see below), and from this point on pink is used for new additions.
Red = Corrigenda
These are corrections of typographical errors or inadvertent omissions. They are not substantive improvements of the material in the dictionary in its original incarnation. Included here are a few errors in the first impression already corrected in the second impression.
Green = Addenda
These are new material, whether in the form of new entries, or additions to entries already present. At this stage no concerted attempt has been made to collect additional material, but there seemed no good reason to exclude any improvements which have come to our attention.
Black = 1) Justifications
These are given in explanation and documentation of new words, changed translations, or new periods of attestation, by comparison with AHw and/or CAD. We aimed to incorporate in CDA corrections or additions to an AHw entry already offered by CAD (where we concurred), and have not provided documentation for these cases; however, reference is sometimes made to CAD where it improves or corrects an AHw entry under another word. Entries sometimes include short explanatory notes but in the main consist of references to a bibliographical source which will give the necessary documentation. Bibliographical abbreviations are placed at the end.
Black = 2) Exclusions
Some of the words or meanings in AHw which we have suppressed are also noted; these are placed in square brackets, in non-bold font. A few entries note decisions not to accept a proposal made in the recent literature.
The scrapbook was created in January 2013. It is a page where we make ad hoc notes on Akkadian words as they come, or are brought, to our attention. They are very much 'work in progress'.
In due course, entries in the scrapbook will be processed and subjected to scrutiny. This will result in their being: a) moved into the list of lemmata (if they entail a modification of the dictionary); left to stand in the scrapbook (if they do not entail a modification of the dictionary, but are nonetheless worthwhile); or c) deleted altogether (if redundant or erroneous).
We use Steve Tinney's Ungkam font, derived from sil.org's Gentium font. This contains all the diacritics necessary for writing transliterated and normalised Akkadian. The font is available in both a Mac Suitcase version and a Win/Linux OpenType version, and may be downloaded for free at http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/doc/user/fonts. We strongly recommend to users of this webpage that they download and install a version of this font. Without it, certain characters (notably thet and tsade) may appear incorrectly.
Several colleagues helped at the initial stage by supplying material, most notably Prof. Dr K. Hecker. Since the archive was created, much Mari material was received from Moshe Anbar, and other contributions came from a number of scholars. A start has been made on absorbing the CAD R: much work has been done for this by Dr Simon Sherwin, and the first few revised entries are now included.
Warm thanks go to all those who have contributed, and their entries are marked with their initials (see list of Contributors below). Where a date appears after the initals, this is the date on which the contribution was sent in by the contributor (this not necessarily being equal to the date on which the contribution was processed and put online).
Not all entries can be traced to their originator, especially when they were supplied by one of the editorial team in the course of their routine work on the dictionary. Where a new proposal is the brainchild of one editor, this is usually indicated so as to absolve the other editors from responsibility.
Contributors' initials as used in the list of lemmata:
|JVKW||James Kinnier Wilson|
|JNP||John Nicholas Postgate|
|WGW||Wilfred G. Watson|
|Dercksen, J.G., OACTA||The Old Assyrian copper trade in Anatolia (Leiden 1996).|
|Etudes Fleury||J.-M. Durand (ed.), Florilegium Marianum. Recueil d'études en l'honneur de Michel Fleury (Mémoires de N.A.B.U. 1; Paris 1992).|
|Farber, W., Schlaf!||Schlaf, Kindchen, Schlaf! Mesopotamische Baby-Beschwörungen und -Rituale (Eisenbrauns 1989).|
|Festschrift Ten Cate||Theo P.J. van den Hout & Johan de Roos (eds.), Studio historiae ardens : ancient Near Eastern studies presented to Philo H.J. Houwink ten Cate on the occasion of his 65th birthday (1995).|
|Festschrift Wilcke||W. Sallaberger, K. Volk & A. Zgoll (eds.), Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke (Harrassowitz; Wiesbaden 2003)|
|Figurative language||M.Mindlin/M.J.Geller/J.E.Wansbrough (eds.), Figurative language in the Ancient Near East (London 1987).|
|George, Topographical texts||A.R. George, Babylonian topographical texts (=Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 40).|
|Grégoire, Contribution||J.-P. Grégoire, Contribution ŕ l'histoire sociale, économique, politique et culturelle du Proche-Orient ancient, Vol. 1 (Archives administratives et inscriptions cunéiformes: Ashmolean Museum, Bodleian collection, Oxford; Paris 1996).|
|Güterbock Tribute||H.A.Hoffner/G.M.Beckman (eds.), Kaniššuwar. A tribute to Hans G. Güterbock on his seventy-fifth birthday May 27, 1983 (Assyriological Studies 23; Chicago 1986).|
|Hecker et al. 1998||Kappadokische Keilschrifttafeln aus den Sammlungen der Karlsuniversität Prag|
|Livingstone, MMEW||A. Livingstone, Mystical and mythological explanatory works of Assyrian and Babylonian scholars (Oxford 1986).|
|Maul, Eršahunga||S.M. Maul, "Herzberuhigungsklagen". Die sumerisch-akkadischen Eršahunga-Gebete (1988).|
|Mélanges Birot||J.-M.Durand/J.-R.Kupper (eds.), Miscellanea Babyloniaca. Mélanges offerts ŕ Maurice Birot (Paris 1985).|
|Mélanges Finet||M.Lebeau/P.Talon, Reflets des deux fleuves. Volume de mélanges offerts ŕ André Finet (Akkadica Supplementum VI (1989).|
|Mélanges Kupper||Ö. Tunca (ed.), De la Babylonie ŕ la Syrie, en passant par Mari. Mélanges offerts ŕ Monsieur J.-R. Kupper ŕ lďż˝occasion de son 70e anniversaire (Ličge 1990).|
|Studi Saporetti||P.Negri Scafa/P. Gentili (eds.), Donum Natilicium. Studi in onore di Claudio Saporetti in occasione del suo 60o compleanno (Rome 2000).|
|Studies Diakonoff||M.A. Dandamayev et al. (eds.), Societies and Languages of the ancient Near East (Warminster 1982).|
|Studies Lambert||A.R.George/I.L.Finkel, Wisdom, gods and literature. Studies in Assyriology in honour of W.G. Lambert (Eisenbrauns 2000).|
|Studies Oates||L. al-Gailani-Werr et al. (eds.), Of pots and plans: Papers on the archaeology and history of Mesopotamia and Syria presented to David Oates in honour of his 75th birthday (NABU Publications; London 2002).|
|Studies N. Özgüç||M.J.Mellink/E.Porada/T.Özgüç (eds.), Aspects of art and iconography: Anatolia and its Neighbors. Studies in honor of Nimet Özgüç (Ankara 1993).|
|Studies Reiner||F. Rochberg-Halton (ed.), Language, literature, and history: philological and historical studies presented to Erica Reiner (American Oriental Series 67, New Haven 1987).|
|Studies Sachs||E.Leichty/M.deJ.Ellis/P.Gerardi (eds.), A scientific humanist. Studies in memory of Abraham Sachs (Philadelphia 1988).|
|Studies Sjöberg||H. Behrens/D.Loding/M.T.Roth (eds.), DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A. Studies in honor of Ăke Sjöberg (Philadelphia 1989).|
|Studies T. Özgüç||K. Emre/M. Mellink/B. Hrouda/N. Özgüç (eds.), Anatolia and the Ancient Near East. Studies in honor of Tahsin Özgüç (Ankara 1989).|
|Studies Veenhof||W.H. van Soldt et al. (eds.), Veenhof Anniversary Volume. Studies presented to Klaas R. Veenhof on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday (Leiden 2001).|
|A.J.Sachs/H.Hunger||Astronomical Diaries and related texts from Babylonia, I (Wien 1988); II (Wien 1989); III (Wien 1996).|